[MUSIC] Welcome back. In our previous video, we had an introduction to common wine faults. Here in this lesson, we will dive a little deeper into that subject. Is there something wrong with my wine? How would I know? We hear servers, sommeliers, tasters, and wine judges talk about wine faults. And it's definitely a topic that should be taken seriously. Again, as a modern, optimistic wine maker, I feel that the overall state or quality of wines from around the world is exceptional these days. I'm not speaking to whether or not they are all classic, complex, ageworthy, or simpler transient styles. I'm simply saying that there seems to be an awful lot of well-educated and well-trained wine makers around these days. Who are capable of crafting high-quality, problem-free wines. That said, I am also a frequent wine judge for both domestic and international wine competitions. And I see a wide cross-section of wines from everywhere. And believe me, there are still a lot of strange, bizarre, faulty wines out there. If you discuss this topic with a wine server or sommelier, good people to talk to since lots of wines pass under their noses, they will tell you that there are some very obvious, legitimate faults that pop up from time to time. Other than these legitimate faults, there maybe other unfamiliar odors that you may sniff. Which may simply be idiosyncrasies that are always found in a particular wine from a certain region. And a lack of knowledge of these wines, and a familiarity with them, makes them stick out like apparent blemishes. But some wines just have regional quirkiness. And are appreciated and even expected by those who have familiarity with them. It will take more wine study and tasting experience to begin to sort this out. Many wines are definitely acquired tastes. Those of you who have traveled to distant, wine-growing regions, out of your normal surroundings, may have tasted a local wine that you initially found to be strange or off-putting. However, the surroundings, the charming 16th century chateau, the comfortable familiarity that others had with this wine. And maybe the regional dish that the chef designed to pair with the wine caused love at first sight. Or maybe I should say love at first taste. You will be forever bonded with that wine. But if it had been tasted for the first time back home in a different context, you might've considered it a bit too funky to drink. Without prompting, I think any wine waiter or sommelier you will talk to will probably tell you that one of the most common reasons people want to reject a wine is rooted in their unfamiliarity with what they've just ordered. The best wine servers seemed to have a kind of ESP, extra-sensory perception, that alerts them, after only minimal conversation with a restaurant guest, to the possibility that this person is about to order a wine out of their usual comfort range. And in that case, the server can gently discuss their choice. And maybe preempt a possible misunderstanding. It doesn't always work. I can think of examples where a customer is very adamant. And orders an expensive, older red wine, for example. And then sends it back claiming that it's defective. If you were the server, what would you do? It's a difficult situation. The staff, by the way, is watching from the wings. And is quietly celebrating this rare, expensive wine that they'll now get to taste after their shift ends. In wine tasting terminology, a wine may be said to be flawed simply by exhibiting an odor or flavor that is not suppose to normally be there. It maybe a smell that is atypical of the particular wine category. And it might cause a wine judge to downgrade the wine score due to its atypicity, that is, for not being true-to-type. But that does not constitute a fault. Opinions vary, and so we'll just concern ourselves with the faults considered classic the world over. I think even a novice with minimal tasting experience can recognize when a wine simply smells like a wine and nothing more. We call this basic wine-like smell vinosity. It's the background smell that all wines have that make them smell like wine and not like beer, not like soda. Sometimes wines that are fairly neutral and lack any varietal markers are described by tasters as vinous. I'm confident that if you are paying attention to what's in the glass, swirling and sniffing, you will notice when there is something else there other than the underlying wine smell. And after you begin to be familiar with the typical odor profile of the major varietals we're studying, you may notice something that is incompatible or doesn't fit the picture. Something perhaps a bit off-putting. Voila, a possible wine fault. Wine faults, sometimes referred to as odor or flavor defects, can usually be detected by smell. Though sometimes not until the wine has warmed up a bit on your palette after you've taken a sip. These are the odors we are looking for when we initially swirl the glass. And bring it up to our nose for some quick sniffs just to check for the wine's soundness or freshness. These wine faults maybe divided into different categories. Those arising from oxidation. Those cause by reduction, usually sulfur-related. Those cause by unfriendly yeast or bacterial growth in the wine. Those that result from environmental odors or taints from packaging. This is an extensive area of study. But here we will present the most commonly encountered faults. And explain how to recognize them and what caused them. We'll also ponder the concept that some so-called faults may really be attributes and contributors to wine complexity. That is, when they're present at or near their threshold levels. Kind of like Ralph Waldo Emerson's definition of a weed, a plant who's virtues have not yet been discovered. In this lesson, we considered common wine faults. In our next lesson, we will discuss how beauty is in the nose of the beholder.