[MUSIC] Hi and welcome back to our week two lessons. You may remember from earlier that we created a template like the one we're looking at here to use as a basis for our future HTML files. So I've taken this template, and I've saved it as html2.html and made a few changes, calling it My Second Page and experimenting with Links and Text. Here we're back to the template. Notice I've filled in the title and I've added a head tag, which we studied last time. So you may be wondering, how do we make a link, so our users can click on a link in our website? We can do that like this. We'll start with tag, In this case it's an anchor tag. An anchor tag is denoted with the letter a. And then we'll add, This href. Now, an href is an attribute for a tag. And tags are allowed to have attributes that give the browser additional information about a tag. In an anchor tag, we specify the link with an href. So here, we're going to provide information on where we want the link to go. And notice, I'm typing in a familiar URL Google. And so, the attribute here, the href, is href= and then the link information, just as you type it into a browser. And then finally, I'm going to close the tag. And this greater than, matches the less than here with the a. And then I will Close my anchor tag with a closing anchor tag, with the /a, just as I have the /H1 and the /title and so forth. And I can give my link a name. I can put any text I want here. And I'll try this. Go to Google. Now I can save this. It's important to save, or your Links and changes won't be registered. But when I double click the file, I have Experimenting with Links and Text and go to Google. I can click this link and as expected, I'd go to Google. Now I want to point out, that it's important to type href link exactly the way you want it to be. Because, let's imagine for a moment, that I inadvertently typed just this. And I'm going to save it. Now, notice that I ruined the link. It's no longer www.google.com. It's google.c. And now, I go refresh this page, it still says go to Google. But when I click it, it doesn't work, and it reminds us here that it can't figure out what Google does he means. So, whenever you create a new link in your pages, make sure you click it and you're certain where it will go when a user clicks it. Okay, so that tells us how to quit a link and you can use any web address here that you like, anything on the internet that you can put into a browser like in this place or here we are with Google. Any link at all will work as long as it's a valid link. So let's look at the idea of adding a little bit of text, and maybe playing with that text a bit. So we looked at last time the paragraph tag. And I'm going to have a paragraph tag here and I already copied some text here. And that's some lengthy text. And so, notice here on line 15, I have a paragraph tag and some text which goes on quite a ways. I'm going to close the paragraph tag. As we close the other tags. So I have both sides of the paragraph tagged now and I'll save this which is important each time to save it or you won't see your changes. And then we will go and we see our paragraph. Now notice that even though my paragraph, I'll go back to the file, is on one single line and overly long, You see that there on line 15. In the browser, it's wrapped and is a neater paragraph. In fact, If we change the window, the paragraph text will wrap nicely, as a paragraph should, with space available. And that's regardless Of how the text looks here. So for instance, let's make a few changes. And we will add some carriage returns, new lines here to make this a little more readable for us. So here we have the same text and now we've placed it on some separate lines so we can read it all on this page. And we'll save. And we might expect after saving, to see that this will be formatted differently. And notice after we refresh, the formatting hasn't changed. The lesson here is that HTML will tend to ignore our white spaces, including carriage returns and new lines. So for instance let's try this. Let's add quite a bit of space, And save. And we might expect that this is also going to reflect the space we've added. But notice it doesn't. So again, the lesson is that HTML will tend to ignore white space within text. In each case you should test it to be sure. So, what if we wanted to introduce white space? What if wanted something on a new line? We could add a break tag. And here we are, br stands for break. And this is a single tag. There isn't a closing tag for break. In some cases, we'll see break written like this, which indicates that it is both a starting and closing tag, and it's the only tag. But break in this way also works, so you can choose your preference. And we'll save that. And now, we go back and refresh. We see that the text has broken to a new line after the cell. Now, we may not actually want that instead, we might want just to decorate if you will some of the text that's already here. So consider that we could say, <strong>. And this is an HTML tag. This is actually a relatively new tag. There are other tags that would work But are no longer in favor here. And so by saying strong, run html, we're going to change the formatting. So this appears bolded. Let's go refresh the page. And notice here, that this HTML is bolder than this one or this one. And this is purely because we have the strong tag around this HTML. Now A tag that is no longer in favor that has a similar effect would be not in, but b. And b in this case stands for bold. And that to simply say this, we still have a bold effect. Now, the bold tag may not work in some future versions of browsers. So, it's better that we keep this strong. Now, we have other possibilities, too. For instance, if we want to use italics, we can use the emphasis tag, and we denote that with for emphasis and so perhaps we want to have emphasis on, so far. And so we use for emphasis. We can save that And see here, our so far is showing in italics. So you'll find that there are a number of ways to adorn your text with styles and the ways we've looked at so far are among the simplest but the most flexible and most powerful until using CSS, which we'll study later in the course. That's all for this lesson.