Hi, welcome. In this video we will explain which are the normal stress reactions in adults. There are many kinds of reactions and all them are normal, there's some people who overreacts, who feels overloaded, anxious, and there's people that have a more calm reaction, even a lack of reaction. There are different kinds of reactions that we will group to have an idea on what we can find in these emergency situations. When will we find one or another reaction? This depends a bit on the kind of situation we're in, in which we're interceding, whether there has been any traumatic death, if they are close relatives or not, this person's previous story, if he has had previous stressing vital events, in another video we said what vital events are, it will also depend a bit on how this person was before the critical incident, was it a healthy person with a healthy life? Was there any psychiatric history, any illness precedent or any heart disease? All these things in a sense or another can affect how a person reacts, they can influence on the different ways of reacting in adults. Let's talk on distress. What is distress? Distress is the negative stress we are suffering, so distress reactions can either be immediate, that is, during or immediately after the critical incident, or delayed a few hours, to the next day, when during the incident we feel normal but the next day all these kinds of symptoms appear. Inside the immediate distress we can find four groups, we can group the symptoms we will see in four groups: cognitive, physical, emotional and behavioral symptoms. Let's see these groups of symptoms with a bit more details. What are they? As cognitive symptoms we have recurrent thoughts, what we call ruminations, continuous thoughts on the same topic, on the same question, we enter in a loop, we ask, Why me? Why did I ever do to deserve this? All these questions that don't have an answer and we keep asking ourselves continuously. We can also experience some amnesia, we might not be able to remember things that happened right in that moment or we might have gaps, time lapses in which we can't remember anything, we can't focus, we can't concentrate. At an emotional level, what do we see? We can see anxiety reactions, such as anxiety attacks, intense fear, panic, we can see a deep sadness, a lot of emotional pain. We could also see a person that is emotionally blocked, someone who looks anesthetized, that tells us "right now I can't feel anything", this is also normal, in front of such a big shock we have an emotional paralysis, that moment when you feel frozen in a moment and you don't feel anything, good or bad. Later you will evolve, usually the guidelines given to this people are good although right now they can't feel anything and feel blocked, this will evolve during the following days and it can evolve in one direction or another, right? Don't be afraid because it's normal that you see a profession during the next days. As physical symptoms we can see shivers, even some kind of muscular spasms, we can see numbness in the limbs, a huge exhaustion, headaches, migraines, we could even see some photophobia reactions, what does this mean? That light disturbs us, that we are more comfortable in environments with dimmer lights. That's why in previous videos I've recommended that the place where psychological first aid is applied is a comfortable place, with controlled conditions, because we can see many physical reactions that condition the person and its normal state, its physical state as well as its physical and emotional comfort. And finally behavioral symptoms, we can see uncontrolled rage reactions, impulsiveness, a bit of lack of inhibition, hitting a wall or swaying or screaming a lot. There are some cultures in which reactions are a way of channeling emotional cultural expressions in which to express pain the correct thing is leaping on the floor and screaming, doing it literally and screaming or hitting their chest. So these behavioral symptoms that are normal and culturally learned and accepted, that is, if they didn't do this their environment would worry because they wouldn't be expressing correctly this emotional and cognitive malaise it is showing. We said that all this distress can also be delayed. What does this mean? That after a few hours or days we also have some symptoms such as nightmares, intrusive thoughts, remembering, they remind us of the symptoms we describe on the acute stress disorder that in the end is all this symptomatology that lasts days or weeks. Well, these first reactions are this, to which later we can give another name, but the first reactions we can see in situ and in the first moments, in the first days would fit the reactions we describe in the acute stress disease video. It's very important to remember that we don't have to see all this symptomatology at the same time, we don't even have to see it. There are some adults that are in shock, we can see they have a real verbosity, that talk a lot and have to explain it once and again, as well as adults that suddenly disappear inside a deep silence. So, what should be an alert sign to make a specific monitoring or to give advice, to recommend a derivation or a special vigilance of this person? Well, all these symptoms of depersonalization, of dissociation, of emotional blocking, as we said, a huge reserve in which the person shuts itself down and isn't able to leave this state, people, in example fathers or mothers that aren't able to take care of their kids, and not only the kids, but also themselves, people who stops eating, people who stop having, not a normal life, because we have seen this is a process we must normalize in our lives, but that stop, that stop living. So during the first hours we should be alert, we won't say this is pathological, but we will make a preventive monitoring on this people, if it wasn't planned we will do it and if it was planned we will also do it with special attention on this people who shows these symptoms that are a bit more worrying.