The first question I wanted to address that was posted on the forum was my own. And basically I asked how seriously does your organization take the environment and external relations with in it. And I said to this point, our theories have mostly focused on the internal process of firms. And now we're actually focusing on these external, environmental or interorganizational kinds of characteristics. And I wanted to get a sense for whether you guys saw times when your firms focused inwardly or outwardly. And why that was and to get your real world experiences. Now of course there's no real answer to this, it's not meant, it's a hard question with no clear answer for everyone. But what's nice about the question is that, by your responses I can see a lot of variation and you can see variation in this, and you can begin to reflect on. Why it is that some firms do and don't, and why your experiences. Or how we could classify those experiences of having these inward or outward focuses, foci. And what's driving attention basically within these organizations. So I want to kind of go through what people said, and my interpretations of it. And some kind of reflection on it for a minute. Some of you said the focus on internal versus external environments varied by say the leader. And so, it's kind of a personality thing. Depending on the leader that they would decide which boundary switch or focus they would take. So that's interesting, it's a personality thing, it depends on the individual. So that's one perspective. Similar to that some of you argued that the focus varied by the position or role. So in this case the administrative unit of an organization, management say, or a particular department within an organization would be specifically focused on say, the external boundary. And that's interesting, and that makes a lot of sense to me that that's feasible within firms that have, kind of, this division of labor and concern with the outward environment. Others said that it would vary by the industry. And, for example, somebody argued that entertainment industry, for example, would always be outwardly focused, or airlines, or any kind of client serving business, right. Where it was for profit would probably be highly concerned with the environment. Oppositely, some of you said no, no, government agencies or government agencies or even educational institutions were highly inwardly directed in terms of what they are concerned about. And it's mostly because the legal contracts of exchange are established between organizations or between a federal system allocating funds automatically. But there was some debate on that and I did notice that some of the non-profits or governmental organizations did have a concern with the environment. Particularly like national parks and the like, that Lottie mentioned and notably that those kind of concerns within the government are actually at the periphery in terms of the hierarchy of concerns of these governments. For example, in California with the budget crisis, the state parks actually shut down and they don't have as many employees there. But in order to get by, in even times of feast, they still didn't have enough money to do as many things as they wanted, and they and to do kind of alliances and network forms of organizing. Next week we'll talk about this in particular, in order to get by and provide services. So they sub-contract out Food service or cleaning, and then the forest rangers would take care of the park. It's feasible that different structures, even within the governmental agencies might be outwardly or inwardly oriented. I think if you're at the margins of hierarchy of needs or concerns like environmental issues. The outward focus as a way to garner resources or to pool them and have a say in situations where maybe you're not valued as much as you should be. And vice versa with firms that highly bureaucratized that maybe a inward focus is feasible for those kinds of government agencies. So industry will matter, but so will the kinds of circumstances in which those industries are experiencing. Another reason to focus outward with citing is the context and by this context in the environment, I want to try to elaborate this a little bit because in some cases firms are within a competitive environment. And this can kind of force them to be highly concerned with external relationships in the environment. So, for example, someone mentioned the bipolar industry of airplane manufacturing of boeing and EADs. And here you have two firms competing for the same kinds of business and they're highly concerned with what the other one does. And that made sense to me, that the context of competition would lead to that. But another feature of context could be like, say, a recession or a depression that the loss of resources makes firms very concerned with seeking new kinds of resource sources out in the environment. So I mean, the context itself and the environment itself can dictate where you focus. And a final theme seem to come out as well in your answers about how the focus varied over time, how attention shifted over time. And it depended on where problems and complexity resided for each firm, so I like the example of mining where someone said that the environment mattered greatly at one phase of getting access to a land. And then, another as well that in order to have some kind of expensive infrastructure like roads for multiple mines they pooled together. So they worked in the environment with each other in order to accomplish that. But in other times you can imagine where the internal tensions shifts to just mining operations. Getting it done for that particular mine. So, in a way I'm kind of thinking all these answers really apply and are salient, but that the idea that you switch depending on where the issues exist or where the greatest action is for a firm. Where the greatest salience is, and where there's ambiguity and problems, that's where you're going to focus a lot of your attention. And in a lot of these cases that's going to be the the kind of environmental boundary, whether internal, external. That these organizations shift in focus. It just so happens that the next three weeks we're going to focus on organizational theories that concern primarily the environment.