The final screenside chat I want to do this week concerned a question that was raised by Bruno Carneiro, and he says, do deadlines improve decision making and productivity in organizations? What does each theory predict? And this actually was a great question because in many ways, to me, I noticed that you guys picked up on notions of timing and temporality in the readings, as well as with organized anarchy, that that's a key tenet. And you noticed the importance of that for a lot of our decision making and organization. The other thing that was neat about it was that what resulted was a real productive conversation about efficiency and deadlines, whether that actually generates quality products or efficiency in an organization. And you also did these neat comparisons of the different theories from the course in terms of deadlines. So I thought it was kind of a neat thread and productive for people to read. Just to come back to the notion of efficiency, a lot of you guys had different opinions on it. But it began with Irina really saying, look, obviously deadlines help because people would not do things. They would postpone indefinitely. And then Carlos said, yeah, that may be true. However, too tight a deadline and you end up doing a low-quality product. So that was kind of interesting. And then Christine had a nice insight to Feeney. And she wrote, I think the different theories would view deadlines in different ways. So here comes the comparison of different theories from the course, which I really enjoy seeing because it makes me realize that you're seeing them as different tools in your toolbox. You're becoming more like a carpenter as opposed to just a hammerer. And so [LAUGH] that's kind of always great to see. And she writes, I don't believe deadlines will be irrelevant with either rational actor model or the organizational process model, in which consequence appropriateness is known and the best decision is always chosen. The bureaucratic politics model, on the other hand, assumes unlimited time for participants to make exchanges. They continue to trade until no more mutually acceptable trades are possible, which to me seems incompatible with the idea of a deadline, would be negatively effected by imposing one. Finally, it sounds like the organized anarchy model is aided by deadlines as they create many of the characteristics of this view, such as a reliance on temporal simultaneity. So it was a neat insight. I don't know if other people on the forum always agreed with those kind of characterization. For the most part, they agree with the sentiment and began to analyze as well. And so someone like Matthew Hamill and Kathy Atkinson, I think you'll see that, on the one hand, Matthew says for a rational actor that if you do have a deadline, actually Kathy says you need a deadline or you never decide. And Matthew, rightly probably, identifies that once you have a deadline, you no longer optimize, and therefore, you go to kind of a satisficing solution. So satisficing is a form of a rational actor model that's more bound to be rational and reflective probably of more observed realities and decision making. On the other hand, the logic of appropriateness, Matthew wrote that a deadline is like a constraint and it forces a decision. If anything, it provokes one. And I think the logic of appropriateness is something that actually is consistent with the garbage can theory model or the organized anarchy model, which constantly argues that it doesn't really have to concern with consequences and a logic of consequence. That it's often one of a logic of appropriateness and sense making and meaning making and creation of symbolic value. And not only that, that choice arenas are kind of generated by these deadlines, such as with San Francisco desegregation plan. It was a court order with a deadline that commenced a series of these garbage can arenas of choice. And so that kind of forced a decision. And so I think that is consistent with a logic of appropriateness, so Matthew, thank you for that. Now I like to think, too, in terms of this course. You guys brought up in terms of paper writing and things like that. It is a dilemma for me in terms of deadlines for the course. Currently we do have deadlines, and those deadlines used to be weekly. Now we make them every three weeks, kind of in chunks because people needed flexible schedules. And we tried to have deadlines there so that you had a class experience where people were moving through the material in a similar way. So we had particular reasons for it. Now is it efficient though? Is it really optimizing your learning experience? I'm torn, to some extent, because I could see if I just had no deadlines and if you just finished the material in your own time, and you post asynchronously to all the forums in the like, we may have the same result and more people finishing these kinds of courses. We don't have to think of them in linear terms like typical courses. On the other hand, from a garbage can angle and a logic of appropriateness angle, I think you could argue that deadlines provides some symbolic value. They establish a culture that these kinds of activities matter. And I think there is something to that, as to why maybe we retained deadlines, that we did want there to be an importance and some kind of shared experience for people. So it wasn't so much efficiency's sake that we thought it would make for better products. But it was more about generating kind of a symbolic value of paper writing, and with the material that everybody kind of experiences it at the same time and has this kind of dialogue. So I think it's a slightly different view and perhaps more consistent with the garbage can. And you guys' comments kind of made me think about that, that maybe it was less rational actor on our part and how we have kind of used grading and the timing of these assignments. That's kind of shifted a little bit according to the conditions and the contexts and the feedback we get from students, while also trying to kind of orchestrate this garbage can of the course. So that there is some kind of shared experience and shared meaning and shared symbolic value from the activities we do, even if they aren't necessarily always the most efficient in terms of producing perfect knowledge and skills in all of you. Obviously we're trying to do all of that, but it seems like some of these other values or concerns take priority at times. So anyhow, that's what I have for this week and please keep the questions coming. Great forum discussions, and as always, I'll look for you on the forums, and please communicate with me and the CTAs and the TAs, okay? Thank you.