When implementing a deep neural network, one of the debugging tools I often use to check the correctness of my code is to pull a piece of paper and just work through the dimensions in matrix I'm working with. Let me show you how to do that since I hope this will make it easier for you to implement your deep networks as well. So capital L is equal to 5. I counted them quickly. Not counting the input layer, there are five layers here, four hidden layers and one output layer. If you implement forward propagation, the first step will be Z1 equals W1 times the input features x plus b1. Let's ignore the bias terms B for now and focus on the parameters W. Now, this first hidden layer has three hidden units. So this is Layer 0, Layer 1, Layer 2, Layer 3, Layer 4, and Layer 5. Using the notation we had from the previous video, we have that n1, which is the number of hidden units in layer 1, is equal to 3. Here we would have that n2 is equal to 5, n3 is equal to 4, n4 is equal to 2, and n5 is equal to 1. So far we've only seen neural networks with a single output unit, but in later courses we'll talk about neural networks with multiple output units as well. Finally, for the input layer, we also have n0 equals nX is equal to 2. Now, let's think about the dimensions of Z, W, and X. Z is the vector of activations for this first hidden layer. So Z is going to be 3 by 1, is going to be a three-dimensional vector. I'm going to write it as, n1 by one-dimensional matrix, 3 by 1 in this case. Now, how about the input features x? X we have two input features. So x is, in this example, 2 by 1, but more generally it'll be n0 by 1. What we need is for the matrix W1 to be something that when we multiply an n0 by 1 vector to it, we get an n1 by 1 vector. So you have a three-dimensional vector equals something times a two-dimensional vector. By the rules of matrix multiplication, this has got to be a 3 by 2 matrix. Because a 3 by 2 matrix times a 2 by 1 matrix or times a 2 by 1 vector, that gives you a 3 by 1 vector. More generally, this is going to be an n1 by n0 dimensional matrix. So what we figured out here is that the dimensions of W1 has to be n1 by n0, and more generally, the dimensions of WL must be nL by nL minus 1. For example, the dimensions of W2, for this, it will have to be 5 by 3, or it will be n2 by n1, because we're going to compute Z2 as W2 times a1. Again, let's ignore the bias for now. This is going to be 3 by 1. We need this to be 5 by 1. So this had better be 5 by 3. Similarly, W3 is really the dimension of the next layer, the dimension of the previous layer. So this is going to be 4 by 5. W4 is going to be 2 by 4, and W5 is going to be 1 by 2. The general formula to check is that when you're implementing the matrix for a layer L, that the dimension of that matrix be nL by nL minus 1. Now, let's think about the dimension of this vector B. This is going to be a 3 by 1 vector, so you have to add that to another 3 by 1 vector in order to get a 3 by 1 vector as the output. This was going to be 5 by 1, so there's going to be another 5 by 1 vector in order for the sum of these two things that I have in the boxes to be itself a 5 by 1 vector. The more general rule is that in the example on the left, b^ is n^ by 1, like this 3 by 1. In the second example, it is this is n^ by 1 and so the more general case is that b^[l] should be n^[l] by 1 dimensional. Hopefully, these two equations help you to double-check that the dimensions of your matrices, w, as well as of your vectors b are the correct dimensions. Of course, if you're implementing back-propagation, then the dimensions of dw should be the same as dimension of w. So dw should be the same dimension as w, and db should be the same dimension as b. Now, the other key set of quantities whose dimensions to check are these z, x, as well as a of l, which we didn't talk too much about here. But because z of l is equal to g of a of l, apply element-wise then z and a should have the same dimension in these types of networks. Now, let's see what happens when you have a vectorized implementation that looks at multiple examples at a time. Even for a vectorized implementation, of course, the dimensions of w, b, dw, and db will stay the same. But the dimensions of za, as well as x, will change a bit in your vectorized implementation. Previously we had z^ equals w^ times x plus b^]1], where this was n^ by 1. This was n^ by n^, x was n^ by 1, and b was n^ by 1. Now, in a vectorized implementation, you would have z^ equals w^ times x plus b^. Where now z^ is obtained by taking the z^ for the individual examples. So there's z^, z^ up to z^[m] and stacking them as follows and this gives you z^. The dimension of z^ is that instead of being n^ by 1, it ends up being n^ by m, if m is decisive training set. The dimensions of w^ stays the same so is the n^ by n^ and x instead of being n^ by 1 is now all your training examples stamped horizontally, so it's now n^ by m. You notice that when you take a, n^ by n^ matrics and multiply that by an n^ by m matrics that together they actually give you an n^ by m dimensional matrics as expected. Now the final detail is that b^ is still n^ by 1. But when you take this and add it to b, then through python broadcasting this will get duplicated into an n^ by m matrics and then added element-wise. On the previous slide, we talked about the dimensions of w, b, dw, and db. Here what we see is that whereas z^[l], as well as a^[l], are of dimension n^[l] by 1, we have now instead that capital Z^[l], as well as capital A^[l], are n^[l] by m. A special case of this is when l is equal to 0, in which case A^, which is equal to just your training set input features x is going to be equal to n^ by m as expected. Of course, when you're implementing this in back-propagation, we'll see later you end up computing dz as well as da. This way, of course, has the same dimension as z and a. Hope the low exercise went through helps clarify the dimensions of the various matrices you'll be working with. When you implement back-propagation for a deep neural network, so long as you work through your code and make sure that all the matrices or dimensions are consistent, that will usually help you go some ways towards eliminating some class of possible bugs. I hope that exercise for figuring out the dimensions of the various matrices you'd be working with is helpful. When you implement a deep neural network if you keep straight the dimensions of these various matrices and vectors you're working with, hopefully, that will help you eliminate some class of possible bugs. It certainly helps me get my code right. Next, we've now seen some of the mechanics of how to do the forward propagation in a neural network. But why are deep neural networks so effective and why do they do better than shallow representations? Let's spend a few minutes in the next video to discuss.