Now we will go more in depth on how to build a strong communication identity. Building a strong communication identity is a necessity for brands that want to create a lifestyle. If all the messages coming out and going in the companies are consistent this will help to reenforce the direction. On the contrary, if messages are not aligned one can take away from the others. It is fundamental that everyone within the communication department, but also specialists working outside the company are aligned to the same vision, the one of the company itself. What are the key elements constituting a strong communication identity? The first is the concept, the one most important thing that as a company we want to communicate. Each company should be able to associate the brand’s personality to a few keywords. The exercise I often suggest the companies is to identify the three objectives that could synthesize what is the company’s promise. For example, Dolce & Gabbana is well known for three words. Those three words are “Sicilianity”, sensuality, and “sartoriality”. It’s the place of origin. It’s the Mediterranean approach. It’s being central, that is to be sexy, but in more a subtle, sophisticated way, and it is up to “sartoriality” that is about the product characteristics. Now let's start to do the same exercise for the brands you are familiar with. Are they really associated with some key adjectives or is it difficult for you to create this connection? Another example I want to give you is another Italian brand, Tod's. Tod's is well-known for the moccasin with the so-called gommini, the rubber sole pointed, with holes. These shoes are both comfortable and delicate, because it is a loafer, therefore it is elegant, but then the sole is also sporty, and therefore is suitable for people that have to move ant want to stay comfortable. This product positioning is perfectly reflected in Tod's advertising campaign. Tod's is communicating the concept of an Italian touch that is to be smart, to be somehow luxurious, but in a very deconstructed, casual way. And if you look at some famous Tod's communication campaigns you will see that most of the time they portray a group of people dressed in an elegant manner. Most of the time chatting around a table enjoying an aperitif enjoying a cup of coffee, and the way they sit is always very relaxed. It is not too formal or up tight. Somehow the concept is also delivered in the communication, not just in the product. Another great example of a great concept is Louis Vuitton. Louis Vuitton speaks to us about the art of travel. The company doesn't want to associated just with a very identifiable logo. The company want to conquer our share of art not just our share of wallet, while speaking and connecting us to values that are much deeper. Now, take a couple of minutes and watch the Louis Vuitton video about core values that is called, “Where Will Life Take You?” Did you watch the video? Was it the kind of video you would have expected from a luxury showoff brand such as Louis Vuitton? I guess not. We didn't see wealthy people. We didn't see a very luxurious mansion. We didn't see even the logo that much. The video was speaking about the essence of journey, what traveling means to us, Why journey is a process of self discovery. Why does a brand selling bags full of logos want to convey these kinds of values? Because this will give the customer of Louis Vuitton a different perception when they will buy the products. You're not simply buying the very nice logo or they very well done stitch of the bag, you are buying a statement about who you are, the place you want to have in the world. So successful brands are those that are able to convey strong concepts in their communication. The image identity is not only based on what we say. It is also very important the how we say things. The way the brand speaks to the audience. This is called tunnel voice. As a brand, we may decide to be a little more informative and rational in the way we present ourselves. We may have a more chatty, leasure, ironic tone of voice. We can be more emotional. This is generally speaking a combination of the images we select, the text, if any, the headline, and, as well very importantly in fashion, the attitude of the models themselves. If you think about it, in most of the high-end designer brands. Models look at your face, so they look in your eyes. But they never smile. Why not? Because the message that luxury wants to convey is the one of a privé. It is like a club in which the brand is already in, and if you're happy, you will probably have the invitation. Otherwise, you will stay outside. So the model is not searching for your empathy. She doesn't necessarily want to be your friend, Probably you want to be the model’s friend. It’s a little arrogant and challenging tone of voice, but it is also what luxury is selling, this world for the happy few. Now compare the same model in skincare advertisement, a beauty product. Even a luxurious one. Here the chances are that the model will be smiling. The reason is that what the beauty industry wants to sell us is hope. Hope that we will be as beautiful as the model if we buy that shampoo or that skincare cream. Here the model has to be a friend of ours. We have to think that it is feasible to become as beautiful as she is. You see how those very little details really are important and paramount in positioning the brand. In fashion, as I explained in the last lecture, advertising is mainly based on pictures. That's why the photo-shoot itself is very important to define a brand’s identity. Not all the companies pay attention to the same details, but those that have been able to identify some key characteristics also made their communication more memorable across the different product seasons. For example, there are some brands that associate themselves to images that are mainly in vivid colors or black and white. If I think about Emporio Armani or Armani Jeans most of their advertisement campaigns are in black and white. If I see together with many different pictures a black and white one, I immediately connect myself to the identify and the world of sophistication of Armani. The choice of model is also key. Some brands associate themselves to very curvy women, like Dolce & Gabbana or Guess Pin-Up. Others with different typologies of models like the mother and daughter of the French brand Comptoir des Cotonniers or the couples of another French brand The Kooples. We immediately associate that specific image to the brand when we see this kind of situation. Also, the location is very important in order to convey some specific values. Most high-end designers, but also retailers are willing to imitate the same costs, such as Zara, decide to go for a studio. Why the studio? Because in the studio you have a neutral background and the product is king, it’s really the protagonist. On the contrary, casual, sporty brands are more likely to choose outdoor locations in which also the interactions among people looks more spontaneous. Here the image that they want to convey is come as you are. So far we spoke about the creativity, the message. But the media is as important as the message. Indeed, the media helps to position the message in a specific way. That's why for fashion companies it’s so important to select glossy magazines. The same advertising in a magazine with a different quality of paper or with different quality of the stories of the other brands that are in the magazine itself will have a completely different perception. So it is important to select magazine not for the quantity, the numbers of readers they have, but for the quality, the affinity of the readers with the work that the brand wants to project. In the magazine, what the companies want, is to have pages that pay for the advertising, but as well, a space in the editorials. I don't know if you are familiar with what editorials are, but they are very important for fashion. Generally speaking, in every magazine, you have pages that are positioned at the center of the magazine, in which the fashion editors describe what are the new trends, putting together brands belonging to different companies. To be selected for those editorials is a sign that the company is really fashionable. It’s an endorsement that is given by the magazine itself. And that's why this is what PR press office of the companies are always searching for as a measurement of their effectiveness. Together with glossy magazines, there are other forms of media that are more and more important. Billboards; windows, that are like having a billboard 365 days in the streets and; generally speaking, the new media. Fashion companies are communicating more and more through videos, social media, blogazines, and fashion bloggers. How the digital media revolutionized the communication landscape is the topic that we are going to address in the next week. I hope you enjoyed this lecture. Bye.