In this session, we're going to look at some basic instructions theories and their origins. We also want to demonstrate the difference between instruction theories and learning theories. So in this session, we're going to cover the purpose of instructional systems design and translating learning into practical instructional interventions, basics of instructional theories and models, in particular, Bloom's work and Gagne's work. Then we will conclude this section with a reality check. So this is a quick summary of what we have discussed in our learning theories section. Here you can see in such a system design as a process to connect input, means, and results together. Inputs could be coming from learners, their experiences on the subject matter, their prior learning experiences. Means would be theories. In this particular section, we are interested in looking at interesting theories to help us device instruction methods and strategies, and results remains to be important, the desired learning outcomes of the intended instruction. We have touched on major camps of learning theories. Specifically, we looked at behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism. In order to create feasible instructional interventions, we have understanding of learning theories. The next step will be translating learning theories into feasible practical instructional interventions. So this is a quick recap of what we have discussed in the learning theory section. So in order to translate learning theories into practical instruction interventions, this is the list of question we should ask to situate learning theories into our instruction design practices and this illustration relevant to this particular section will be the difference between instructional theories, models, and learning theories. Instructional theories will help us device instructional methods in order to attend the learning outcomes. Learning theories, however, would tell us the required conditions in order to attend their learning outcomes. So the purpose of learning theories initial design differs from the purpose of instruction theories. In particular, learning theories is to describe how learning occurs across contexts, different populations under different on circumstances. Instructional theory or model, on the other hand, is to prescribe how to attain optimal learning outcomes. In this section, we're going to cover the basics. Bloom's mastery learning is a well accepted framework in the instructional design world. Then we have the taxonomy of learning outcomes and nine events of instruction. Both came from Robert Gagne. These are three basics of instructional theories that are commonly applied in instructional practice and just to show you how they might differ from learning theories we have discussed. In terms of Bloom's mastery learning, there are some conditions that need to be met. First, the outcome of the instruction is not distributed normally when the instruction is optimal. What does this mean? This means that if the instruction is well-designed, then the learner's performance, regardless of their aptitude prior to the learning experience, if the instruction is well-designed It is possible to bring learners, most of all learners to the attended level of performance. That's important because it tells us that training, well-designed training, well-designed instruction can overcome, to a large extent, the inherent limitations of learners. So that that creates a lot of opportunities for instructional designers and also makes our work more meaningful in terms of developing human potentials. Second, most students can master a subject which speaks to the first bullet point. Third, instruction is the means to enable mastery again. It gives a lot of support to instruction design when considering instruction as an effective method to improve learning and performance. Learners characteristics from Bloom's perspective will be cognitive and affective, emotionally speaking, the entry behaviors are important. I think this characteristics will touch on the major camps of learning theories as well. The quality of instruction can be assessed based on the design cues within the learning environment, the opportunities for learners to participate and to practice, and the reinforcement feedback design for the specific learning task. This is a typical representation of Bloom's taxonomy. You see this is a pyramid. From the foundation is learner's abilities to remember. Second one up will be abilities to understand, to apply, to analyze, to evaluate, and to create. Be able to create is the highest level of learning outcome according to Bloom's work. That particular skill set will require more advanced design of the learning environment because the outcome is more complex than for instance only requiring learners to recall certain information. So if you follow the Bloom's taxonomy, again guided by your intended learning outcome, you should be able to design methods or strategies to foster your learners' development towards the the direction you intend them to follow. So the right hand side of this particular illustration provides a shortlist of action verbs that we like to use as instructional designers to differentiate different levels of mastery learning according to Bloom's work. For instance through, for the remember level, you are asking learners to define, to duplicate, to list, to memorize. At the apply level, you're asking learners to execute, to implement, to solve, to use, to interpret. The list of action verbs are important because, first of all, they help instructors designers identify observable behaviors. Once we identify observable behaviors, then we can design corresponding assessment. Those two are important when it comes to understanding the attainment of the learning outcomes, and also to establish the accountability of the instruction based on Bloom's work, for instance. The second example of instructor theory would be the taxonomy of learning outcomes by Robert Gagne. As you can see from the list, start with the verbal information that deals with recall of information, memorization is another one. Intellectual skills, learner's abilities to differentiate, to categorize, they are part of the intellectual skills. Cognitive strategies deal with learner's abilities to evaluate, to judge, to synthesize. You can also see Gagne added attitudes and motor skills to the taxonomy which provides a comprehensive overview of learning outcomes for instructional designers to consider at least in the beginning of the design process, to define what learning goals, what learning outcomes will be expected from the instruction. The third example of instructional theory I'd like to share with you is the nine events of instruction, also from Robert Gagne. The first event of instruction is gaining attention from learners. Then we should inform learners of intended learning objectives, what need to be achieved today. The third event will be stimulating recall of prior learning. Fourth event will be present the content. So, as you can see, before we can actually present the content, we need to go through these three steps according to Gagne's suggestion. Once we present the content, we can provide scaffolding, we can provide learning guidance. The next event will be to elicit performance, allowing learners to practice during the learning process. Based on the output of the practice, then we can provide feedback in order to help learners improve their skill set. Finally, we will assess learner's performance at the end of the instruction. The ninth event will be enhancing retention and transfer of performance to the job. So, this is the nine events of instruction from Gagne. As you can see, the emphasis or the background of this list is mostly based on cognitive learning principles. So, as we discussed earlier, instructure theories, they are feasible. Right? You can see this, so it shows designers can use this list as a template to begin their design process, if to the large extent the intended learning outcomes are cognitive in nature, and this will be a great starting point. Strategies are in place already, and the structure of instruction is also in place. So, that's another example of instructure theory, nine event of instruction from Robert Gagne. So, what will be the realistic value limitations of instructional theories? First of all, instructional theories are constantly evolving, it deals with practice in the field, it deals with changing learning needs, it deals with changing learning environments, and it also deals with changing expectations from your clients. Instructional theories have their limitations just like learning theories, just like any theories you may encounter. Why instructional theory cannot be situated in order to solve all instructional problems? So, the nine events of instruction from Gagne for instance, that's the most effective when the learning outcomes are cognitive in nature. So, if you say, "How can I apply nine events instruction to constructive learning outcomes?" You can, but maybe you need to modify the process a little bit. Instructional theories have visual designers justify their design decisions, and quality control their deliverables. This is very similar to the one we touched on in the learning theories section. Being able to design instruction deliverables, I think that's given expectation from instructional designers. We know what theories we should apply, we know what the best, given the learning objectives, given the learning outcomes. But as we touched on earlier in this lesson, we also need to communicate why we designed instruction in certain ways to our stakeholders, to our clients, to our learners. So, instructional theories will provide that support to help you make the case as well. So, what the learning theories. Quality control is also important given the context of instructional theory. So, if you see- if you consider instructional theories as a design tool, you can apply, then you can always fall back to those design theories or design tool to have a checklist if you will, making sure all parts are in place based on certain instructional theories. The best instructional design practices based on feasible and relevant instruction theories, and guided by the intended learning performance outcomes. The keywords here are feasible and relevant. Feasibility is the key, you want to make sure that you have great ideas, but you also want to make sure you have resources to help you realize that design ideas. So, feasibility comes high on the list when you have to prioritize your design decisions. In terms of being relevant, instructional theories, again, will have to be based on the nature of the learning outcomes. So, you can decide which theories we can use, in such theories we can use, and which we might not be able to apply this time. This could be the most important aspect when it comes to the value of instructional theories. Instructional theories will have to be practical, will have to be applicable for various learning situations in order to attend various learning outcomes. There are cases, instructional theories are with good intentions, but when you try to apply them in realistic design settings, that it just doesn't work and sometimes it takes too much time, sometimes it requires a lot of front end processing. So, being able to practical is important for instructional theories to demonstrate their values. In this section, we look at some examples of instructional theories, and we also touched down the difference between learning theories and instructional theories. It's important to understand that instructional theories are prescriptive in nature. So, ensure theories will tell us how to design instructions in order to achieve certain learning outcomes. So, it's like a recipe to a large extent, but I want to remind you that we can always change the recipe if we see the need because the practicality is very important for instructional theories to be relevant and valuable in what we do.