Hello everyone, welcome back, this is part two of the instructional design models. In this video, we'll talk more about instructional design models and as we discuss the topic, I want you to start thinking about an instructional design model for your own project. Let's think about selecting and using recipes for cooking meals. For cooking a dish which recipe to use will vary depending on your situation. For example, who would be the target customers? Are you cooking meals for yourself and your family mainly or actual customers at restaurants? What kind of cooking tools and ingredients are required as well as available where you cook? You also need to think about the chefs expertise as well as other human resources and to what extent they can relatively easily and proficiently follow the recipes. You also need to consider the delivery contacts anticipated distribution, right? You may not choose a recipe that may require too much cooking time to be delivered or distributed to your customers. Finally, the length of cooking a meal time would be another important consideration. So, the point of this whole cooking analogy is that even when selecting and using a recipe, there are factors that we need to think about. In the same way, we have to consider various factors in classifying instructional design models. So, no single model is useful for all purposes and all contexts. It is important for instructional designers to know the focus and strength of an instructional design model and adopt or adapt one that will work for their own context. So here are the factors that are considered in creating a taxonomy of instructional design models that were initially created by Gustafsson in 1981 and most recently, modified by Branch and Dousay. The first one, whether there is opportunity for analysis. Depending on your project context the amount of preliminary analysis conducted is different. Sometimes there are pretty limited opportunities for analysis or your situation may require pretty extensive analysis activities. Another one is, whether there is an opportunity for formative evaluation. This is basically the same as analysis depending on your project contexts, the amount of try out and the revisions conducted can be different. You may have no opportunities for formative evaluation on your side or limited or unlimited opportunities for formative evaluation. The level of designer expertise that needs to be committed to the design and development effort are another important consideration. Are there skills and experiences at the novice or intermediate or expert level? The plan length of the course is another important consideration. Would of course be a few hours long or days or weeks months or even years? The next one is the amount of human resources required to create an instruction. Although the general perception is that the instructional design would be a team effort, there are product situations where you are only a single person team or you might work with small groups or large groups of various experts. Anticipated digital resources that are required in terms of design and delivery. So, would that be kind of less than average or about the average or more than average. Another factor would be the area of distribution such as the distribution would happen at the local, regional, national, or international level. Also demand of dissemination and follow-up occurring after the development is important restoration. The delivery format of instruction is something to think about whether the instruction will be delivered online or face to face or whether you have more flexibility in terms of delivery format. So, there are many factors that determine the unique characteristics of each instructional design model. There is no single best way to design instruction. So, given your project context, it's important that the instructional design model that you and your team use effectively and efficiently guide the design process and the design efforts. Some organizations would have their own instructional design processes and models and particularly to follow their own quality assurance control purposes. I'll show you a couple of customized model examples in the next slide. This is the instructional design model used at the E-Learning Office of Gies College of Business here at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The model was followed when creating a MOOC and it starts with an introduction or a social ideation stage for the stakeholders, faculty and staff that will be involved in the course development or specialization development. The introduction phase involves an early meeting to introduce the project where the program staff introduces the specialization concept and the faculty that will take part in it. The E-Learning Office presents the faculty with processes and procedures that'll be followed to create the course, and the faculty gives a short description of the courses and there's a conversation between the faculty and capstone leader. This stage is when the instructional designer carries on the needs analysis process. The introduction stage takes about two to four weeks, and this stage is followed by the design which requires the decisions regarding the topics, tools, and resources for the course. The process involves the participation of the subject matter expert at the lead instructional designer and the program academic director. The design and development process takes about four to eight weeks and the third stage which is development stage takes about 10 to 16 weeks and is when all the decisions made in the design process are kind of implemented and the actual production of materials takes place. After the development stage, the course is launched and that is the implementation stage that takes about four to eight weeks depending on the length of the course. This is followed by the last stage which is the evaluation when analysis of the process, the design, and the outcomes takes place. This whole process takes eight to 10 months from the beginning to end including their evaluation which is the final stage. This is another one by the E-Learning Office here at the Gies College of Business at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This particular image shows that development process. Once the design process is complete, all decisions are made and the development process has to, you know, put them into place as planned. That development process includes several milestones as you can see, that go from the course outline or draft of a syllabus to pilot testing course, developing materials and media, multimedia and text formats, you know, completing a quality check, and final review, and then launch. However, for your first instruction design project, I recommend that you consider using a model that are pretty straightforward and comprehensive guide you step-by-step and provide useful tools such as Smith and Ragan model. Or, Dick, Carey and Carey model. Once you get used to a pretty standard instructional design process, you can modify or even create one that will work well for your own projects at your organization.