Hello everyone, welcome back. This is part three of the learning task analysis lecture series. In this video, we'll learn how to write learning objectives. Following ADDI process, task analysis is an importance step within the analysis stage. More specifically, task analysis is identify what to teach. It's part of instructional analysis. Task analysis requires a set of steps, we completed it and we will primarily be discussing the last step in this video. This is Smith and Ragan model, analyzing the learning task is one of the last activities in the analysis phase. Here's the topic list. We will look at the components of the learning objectives, and write appropriate learning objectives for the instructional design. So, let's quickly revisit the process of task analysis by looking at this graphic. We identify and state learning goals, identify learning outcomes by asking questions such as; what are the mental and physical steps that an individual must go through to perform the learning goal? We analyze information processing steps. Once the information processing steps are analyzed, now you ask, what are the subordinate skills that are required to perform each information processing steps in order to analyze and identify prerequisite skills? Then you draw a dotted line to determine which are the entry-level skills that will not be tied? And which are the prerequisite skills or subordinate skills that need to be taught? Using those prerequisite skills and information processing steps, you write learning objectives. Each box on the flowchart will be converted into one learning objective. Learning objectives are the statements describing what learners will be able to do after the instruction. In writing learning objectives, it's important that the objectives use observable and measurable statements of the performance behaviors, that are related to the learning outcome. So, the terminal behavior should be described using action verbs. Again, learning objectives are what learners will be able to do after the instruction. Therefore, they are different from what learners will be doing during the instruction. Four major components are: audience, terminal behavior that will demonstrate learning and the form of action verbs, conditions of the demonstration of that action or behavior, and a description of the standard or criteria or degree. So, we often call them the A, B, C and D components of learning objectives. Sometimes people do not include degree, standard, or a criterion in the learning objectives. Whether the degree information is included or not, it's important for us to consider, what kinds of evidence of learning we will accept as an indication that learning has occurred. Once again, learning objectives are a detailed description of what students will be able to do. Learning objectives are often also called performance objectives to emphasize the importance of the achievement of observable performance at the end of the instruction. Typically, in an instructional unit, there are two types of learning objectives. First one is terminal objectives. These are the objectives that describe what students will be able to do when they complete a unit of instruction. Please note that the based on the instruction analysis, or your project in reality, will likely consist of multiple units to help the learners to achieve the goals. The second one is enabling objectives. These are the objectives that serve as building blocks for students to achieve the terminal objectives. So, let's suppose that unit one, deals with one information processing step and subordinate skills for the step one. In this case, the terminal objective can be written in reflecting that information processes step one, and all the subordinate skills, all the prerequisites for the step one can be converted into enabling objectives. Okay. Let's do a short activity together, and this is called an action verbs activity. Please do whatever the worst tells you to do. Stand up, everybody please stand up, wave hello, everyone wave hello, talk, find someone and talk to that person. Have sympathize? No. Clap. Forget. March in place. Smile. Understand. Sit down. Okay, this ends the activity. There were some verbs that you can easily follow and show the action. But for other verbs, it was not easy to follow the verb and demonstrate that action. For example, how do you know whether or not somebody understands or knows something? I think you do need a little more elaboration, how you would define, understanding and knowing of something. So, when you use the word understand, then the assessments should measure the understanding of something from the instruction. But it's not specific enough. Same thing for sympathize. Instead of using the verb sympathize, it will be easier to use a verb and condition descriptions to explain what could be an evidence of sympathy after the instruction. But when we write our learning objectives, thinking about a verb for each learning objective can be challenging. So, Bloom's taxonomy, that you have learned from one of the earlier modules, can be helpful in writing learning objectives. For instance, if your objective is targeting explaining ideas or concepts, which is basically understanding and comprehension of something, you can use verbs such as: classify, describe, explain, report, and so forth. And depending on the levels of cognitive thinking, cognitive learning outcomes, this Blooms taxonomy can be helpful for writing our learning objectives, aligning instructional strategies, and developing the assessment. Which of the statement is good examples of a learning objective? So, from the in-video question, you have had an opportunity to think about, which learning objectives are examples and which ones are non-examples. The first one, the learner will be able to understand the importance of not texting while driving. Will this be an example or a non-example? To me, this is a non-example, because the verb understand is vague and not observable. Instead of understand, I will probably use describe or explain. Then the assessment can include an item directly addressing whether or not learners can actually describe or explain the importance of not texting while driving. I would use include the degree information, if possible. Next, the participants will be aware of global warming. This is another non-example, because be aware it's not an action verb. The third one, teach participants about fire safety. What do you think about this one? This is another non-example, because, it describes what the instructor will teach during the instruction, not what the learners will be able to do after the instruction. After completing the self-paced instructional module, the participants will be able to distinguish the taste among five different ice cream flavors. This is a relatively good statement except that it does not include a description of a criteria or a decree. Upon completing this training program, the participants will be able to assemble five coffee tables, by using power tools within three consecutive hours of work time. This is an example of a learning statement. Let's look at the example together and find four components of learning objectives. The participants are of course the audience component, the behavior component is, will be able to assemble coffee tables, the condition is by using power tools, the degree component is five coffee tables, also within three consecutive hours of work time. In summary, a well-written objective describes very precisely the expected learning outcome, in terms of a behavior or performance that can be clearly and fairly assessed. A well-written objective is the main tool for the subsequent design of instructional strategy in assessment. We have looked at Bloom's taxonomy, but this is also helpful tip to select an action verb for each learning objective. Once you identify the learning outcome of each information processing step and subordinate skills, if it's a problem-solving, generate can be a good verb to start with. In the case of rules and principal, a consistent demonstration is important, so, demonstrate can be used. In the case of concepts, you can use verbs like classify or identify. For declarative knowledge and verbal information, you can use verbs such as state, list, recite, or summarize. For attitudes, you can use the verb choose. For psychomotor skills, you can use the verb execute. So, a good way to start the learning objectives would be; the learners will be able to then use the appropriate verb depending on the learning outcome. The verb can be generate, demonstrate, classify, identify, and so forth. I have seen students having difficulty coming up with the description of degrees. So, here are some useful suggestions by Smith and Ragan. Depending on the nature of the objectives to be achieved, you can target accuracy. Numbers of errors allowed, number of correct responses required, time limit or an established standard or state standard or consequences. Let's conclude this lecture with this final slide. Learning objectives are an important focal point for the assessment development as well as the selection of instructional strategies. You don't need to assess what your learners do not need to learn and don't need to achieve. Coming up with the right learning objectives is really the starting point for establishing congruency among these three areas. Once again, learning objectives are not what will happen during the instruction. They are statement describing what learners will be able to do, perform after the instruction. So, please keep that in mind. Lastly, in writing learning objectives as well as establishing the alignment among objectives, assessment, and instructional strategies, using Bloom's taxonomy is helpful. So, I recommend that you further explore the information. For more study, please refer to the references at the end of this lecture. Thank you.