[SOUND] In part one of our lecture, we spoke about the theory and kind of tried to understand what does it mean to pass something or copy something by references versus by value. In this lecture, we're going to look at some examples, so we can experience these concepts in code. So, I'm currently looking at lecture 47 at this script.js file that is located in the lecture 47 folder. I'm going to go ahead and close the file explorer here, and sublime, and let's take a look at our example code. So here, we have a variable a = 7 and then what we're doing is we're copying a into b and 7, obviously is a number so it's a primitive. So it should copy into variable b by value, which means b is no longer pointing anywhere to where A is pointing to. So if we console them out, console.log them out. Let's just go ahead and do this right now, just comment this out for now, you'll see that both are 7. Now, what happens when we change b = 5? Well, since b is pointing to its own memory location b is not going to effect where a is pointing to, so they're both going to go on their merry way. In other words, after b's update, a is still going to remain to be 7 and b now is going to be 5. So, let's go ahead and save that and take a look. So, sure enough a is now 7 and b is 5. So, that's pass by value. Let's go ahead and comment that out and let's take a look at a different different example, let's save that. Take a look at a different example, which is pass by reference and now we're speaking about objects. Let's uncomment that. So in the first line here, we're having a equal to an object literal that has a property 7 and then we're copying a into b. So as you remember from the first part, what we actually do is copying the memory location that it's pointing to this object literal into b not the actual values. So if we now output a and b, let's go ahead and do that. You'll see there both objects that have x property equal to 7. So now if we go ahead and update b, in other words, b.x = 5. What we're actually updating is we're updating this object which both variables are pointing to. So after b.x update, if we log a and log b again, you'll see that both a and b have changed the x value to be 5. So, let's go ahead and save that and you can see here after update x is now 5 from log in a and x is still 5 from log in b. And again, that is simply because they're both pointing to the same memory location. So these two examples are examples of copying by value and copying by reference, but we've been using a different term called passing by value and passing by reference and that term really only applies when we speak about passing value into function calls. So, let's go ahead and take a look at one of those examples. So, let's uncomment that. So here, we have a function called changePrimitive and we're going to pass a primitive value into it. We're going to go ahead and tell our console that we're inside the changePrimitive and we'll log the value before we change it, then we're going to change the value and log the value after we change it. And afterwards, we're going to go ahead and invoke that. So we'll say the value = 7, we'll pass it inside that change value function. And notice that when we pass value inside the changePrimitive function, what is really going on is that the value 7 is being copied and equal to primValue. It's really no different when we're passing it here than saying and I'll put it in comments, but in the memory what's really going on is that prim value is being equal to value. That's really what's going on. So, it's really a different form of copy that we saw before. So actually, let's leave that on so it'll be a comment here. So and afterwards, we're going to go and announce that we're done with the changePrimitive and we're going to log our original value. And the original value should stay 7 even though we changed it inside the changePrimitive function, simply because they're pointing to primValue, and value as still pointing to different memory locations. So, let's go ahead and save that and I'll execute. So we're in changePrimitive before it's 7, because we passed 7. So, it'll get copied into this variable primValue. And after, right here, it's 5, because we change that. And after changePrimitive has been called, the original value of the value variable is still 7 and it's because they're pointing to two different locations, just like before. It's really just a copy of the value itself, it's not pointing to the same memory location. So let's go ahead and comment this out, so it doesn't crowd our console and save that. I should clear it and let's go to the last example here and let's uncomment it and we're doing exactly the same thing, except now we're changing object. And since objects are passed by reference, what we should end up with is we should end up with the same object that's pointing to the same location. So the setup is very similar, we have value that is a object little with a property x equal to seven. And again, when we're passing it into the changeObject function what we're really doing is we're saying, object value is equal to value and this is the same thing that's going on in the previous example, except that now we're calling it passing, right because we're actually passing this value Into the function changeObject. And inside the function, we're going to announce that we're in the changeObject function kind of console out the object value that is passed into us. Changing the x value of it. Loading it afterwards, loading the entire object again, just to see what it is after we change the x. And then when we come back from the function, we want to know what the original value is, has it really changed, because we changed it inside the function. And obviously, it should change, because both the objectValue and the value variables are both pointing to the same memory location. So let's go ahead and save it. As you can see before object is x: 7 after object is x: 5. And after, we call changeObject, the original value now is changed and it's x: 5, because both of those variables were pointing toward the same memory locations so they are effecting the same values. So, this is how passing by value and passing by reference works in code. So to summarize, it's very important to understand this concept that is passing by value versus passing by reference. You can't really code without understanding this basic concept and the simple rule to remember is this, primitives are passed or copied by value and objects are passed or copied by reference. And again, copying and passing by value means that the new variable has no relation to the old variable and changing the value in it will not affect the old variable, as opposed to passing or copying by reference. Changing the values in that new variable will affect the values of the old variable from which the object was actually copied.