[MUSIC] I mentioned before that on the web, content is king. It's all about content. And we spoke about the fact that HTML defines the structure of that content. So if all you wanted was raw content, you could take HTML files, upload them to a server, and you're done. However, that would be a huge mistake. Because while content is king, how users absorb and relate to that content largely depends on our experience of consuming the presentation of it. If there was a lot of noise around me and you could barely hear me, the content of the course would be the same, but the experience consuming the presentation of that content would be quite different. To use the house analogy, nobody likes to live in a house without nicely painted drywall covering installation and support beams. It's the difference between feeling sheltered from outside elements and feeling at home. The point I'm trying to make, is when it comes to a real world website, structure alone is just not enough. It's not good enough to just leave a scaffolding, a server side framework provided out of the box, to see the data. You need to style your content in a way that's pleasing and useful to the user. The use of color, positioning, size, among other things, is all part of that. Cascading style sheets, or CSS, is the technology that provides the styling capability. CSS is an incredibly powerful technology. It can take the same HTML structure and present it in such drastically different ways that you would never even guess that the underlying structure of the content are exactly the same ones. Let me show you a website that doesn't only illustrate this point, but should also amaze you as well. So the website I wanted to show you is csszengarden.com, and the idea of this website is simple. Designers and web developers from all over the world get to submit their own designs for the website csszengarden.com. So they get to redesign the website itself csszengarden.com. There's only one catch. They cannot change any of the HTML. The HTML stays exactly the same and the CSS file, or files, is what they provide. So the only thing they change is the styling. They don't change the structure or the content of the HTML at all, in any shape or form. So the website then goes ahead and showcases its designs on csszengarden.com. And they have over 200 designs submitted now and hosted on this website. So what I want to do is just to give you an appreciation of what styling can do to a website, through the same content, through the same HTML structure, is to demo and just basically showcase a couple of these designs to you. So what I did was, I pre-opened a few of them in a few tabs in my browser and I want to show you. So, this is the same website. This is the website you're looking at, it's the HTML and the custom CSS for this particular look. So, let me just scroll up and down to show you what that looks like. And let's go to this one. So this is, again, the exact same website. The only difference is the CSS styling that got applied to it. This is the same website, again, with different CSS styling applied to it. Now granted, the designers are also able to apply their imagery as well. But the the styling is so drastically different than from the original one. And there's, again, over 200 different styles, different designers that submitted different styles, so you could certainly go take a look. And this one is very creative. It's actually made in the form of a comic. And the text is real, it's selectable, so this is still the same exact HTML. And this one probably will blow you away. Look at this, it's so cool. There's actually animation's going on and it's all done with CSS. And, again, it's exactly the same HTML structure. And exactly the same content, you just see different styles applied to them. Is this neat or what? So the point of this short lecture was that CSS is an incredibly powerful technology that can not only style your content, but also also create a particular user experience that you would want your users to have. And the second point was that user experience over your content matters, right? Remember the difference between listening to something that you could barely hear, and listening to something that you actually enjoy and can understand. So user experience of content matters. So all that's left is to figure out how to write CSS code. So next we'll start exploring the syntax of CSS and we'll explore the anatomy of a CSS rule.