So far, we've been focusing on the analysis of numerical data to detect fraud. But textual data can also be used to find fraud. Organizational frauds, as imagine, typically aren’t perpetrated by one person. Bribes to foreign officials, conspiracies to falsely inflate financial statements you might, or price fixing don’t occur in isolation. Many people can be involved, and typically those people communicate by email. An analysis of email communications within an organization could lead to discovery of these frauds. But textual analytics can be used to review all types of documents, not just email. For example, consider Management Discussion and Analysis in a set of financial statements. Frequent use of words such as “adjustment,” “anomaly,” “irregularity,” “inconsistency” might be a red flag to conduct further inquiries. Often, fraud examiners can look for certain “key words” that are associated with certain types of fraud schemes. For example, groups of emails containing terms such as “override,” “write off,” “adjust,” “just once” “won’t get caught” could be indicative of a financial statement fraud scheme as well as many other types of schemes. Machine assisted review of emails containing words potentially indicative of fraud can help identify schemes before they occur. But while automated review can assist in reviewing large amounts of documentation, careful human analysis is just as important. Careful analysis of management statements and other official company communications can reveal areas where the company may be avoiding discussing sensitive issues or using vague terms or words to hide the truth. Data exists in many forms and in many locations. Obviously, as we mentioned, the fraud examiner will want to work with the IT department to review the accounting and enterprise information systems data collected by the organization. But there are other sources as well. Public records can be a great source of information about individuals and businesses. For example, a criminal conviction search can identify previous instances of misconduct or financial misdeeds by people or companies. Social media and the web can lead to valuable information about individuals or businesses who may be subjects of your investigation. People will often post things to social media sites that may be of interest to a fraud examiner. For instance, let’s say you suspect a particular employee of engaging in a kickback scheme. Recent posts by that employee showing expensive purchases or vacations might be evidence of unexplained wealth. Also be aware that company policies often allow for search of personal electronic devices such as smart phones and tablets. Such searches should only be conducted when necessary, and of course, counsel should be consulted beforehand, but they can provide valuable information in some circumstances such as a data security breach. Digital data has a greater life cycle than most people realize. Just because a subject deletes data from a hard drive, mobile device, or peripheral device such as a USB drive, that does not mean that it is unrecoverable. With the right software tools, digital forensic experts can often recover data even if the user attempted to delete it. It is important to remember not to destroy or change data inadvertently, however. For example, if a device is off, you should never turn it on. Doing so changes important time and date information on the system. Likewise, shutting a system down using normal procedures will also change important information. The best practice is to leave everything as is and ask a digital forensic professional to assist you. He or she will use approved hardware and software systems to make an image of the hard drive. This can be done without harming or altering the original drive. That way any evidence found on the drive will be preserved for use in judicial proceedings. This week covered a variety of topics, mostly in the digital space, including big data and technology-based tools and techniques. We started with a need to identify the correct type and amount of data. From a practical perspective, no case is investigated with an “open checkbook.” The fraud examiner and forensic accountant needs to develop evidence to support their opinions and ensure that no disconfirming evidence exists. Our next topic looked at the some of the tools and techniques used to analyze data and showed how some of the tools and techniques were used to perpetrate and conceal the WorldCom fraud as well as those used to detect it. We wrapped with a discussion of data mining including the electronic evaluation of text evidence. As with all of our material, you can learn more by visiting the West Virginia University and Association of Certified Fraud Examiner websites. Thank you for your participation. We look forward to working with you in the next section.