Problem 2. Schools are especially under-identifying girls as dyslexic. It has long been assumed that dyslexia affects primarily boys. The diagnosis of dyslexia presents a unique set of circumstances. While biologically based dyslexia is expressed within the context of a classroom so that its identification often depends on the school system's understanding of dyslexia. Since most research-based studies of dyslexic children are based on children who have already been identified by their schools. We wondered if school identification processes might be biased and result in the identification of certain groups of children, and the exclusion of others. For example, it had been generally assumed that reading disability was far more common in boys than in girls. Could this be the result of some systematic bias in school identification procedures? Fortunately, we were able to address this question. In principle, the CLS identification and the schools' identification of a reading disability were extensively based on the same or very similar criteria and focused on the same children. What did the data show? In terms of school identification, the prevalence of reading disability is 3-4 times as common in boys than in girls, and that's according to the schools. In contrast, we found no significant difference in the prevalence of reading disability in boys and girls. When each child in a school or school district is individually tested, which is what we did, researchers report as many reading-disabled or dyslexic girls as boys. Consistent to a finding from still other studies that indicate girls with dyslexia are not as readily identified as boys, and in fact, are often more severely impaired in reading before they're identified for special education services. There are significant differences between how teachers rate typical boys and girls. Teachers have incorporated a norm for classroom behavior that reflects the calmer behavior of normal girls. Boys who are a bit rambunctious, although still within the normal range for the behavioral boys, may be perceived as having behavior problems and referred for further evaluation. Meanwhile, the well-mannered little Jennifers and the shy to Tenishas, who sit quietly in their seats, but who nevertheless are failing to learn to read are often overlooked, and never or only much later, identified as dyslexic by their school systems. Today, data from school specialized, but dyslexic students indicate approximately equal numbers of boys and girls. Problem 3. Even when school identification does take place, it occurs relatively late, typically past the optimum age for mediation, usually in third grade or later when dyslexia is often much more difficult to remediate. Today, the failure and delay in identifying dyslexic boys and girls takes on even larger significance. Because we now have data actually showing when the achievement gap between typical and dyslexic readers first takes place, really early in first grade. In a later lecture, we will discuss the consequences of delayed identification. A very positive note, the current availability of an evidence-based screener for children in kindergarten to Grade 3. Comparison in growth rates in reading skills over time from Grades 1 through 12, and two groups of readers. One group who had never experienced reading problems, and another group who met criteria for dyslexia in the early grades. Both groups increase their reading skill over time. However, the gap between the two groups persisted. Examination of the CLS data reveal that the difference in reading between typical and dyslexic readers not only appears early as first grade but importantly persist through adolescence. These data indicate that dyslexic readers do not catch up with typical readers, primarily due to large differences observed as early as first grade. What are the implications of this early and persistent achievement gap? What actions must be taken so that dyslexic readers are not left behind? An important implication of these findings is that if this persistent gap between dyslexic and typical readers is to be narrowed or even closed, effective reading interventions must be implemented very early when children are still developing the basics for reading acquisition, such as phonological awareness, letter sound, understanding, and building a lexicon. Implementing effective reading programs early, even in kindergarten offers the potential to reduce the observed persistent disparities between dyslexic and typical readers. It is vital to use an evidence-based screening instrument with strong psychometrics, which I'll discuss in a later lecture, which then enables early intervention. Born and raised Chicago, west side of Chicago. I went to a prep school in New Hampshire, then went to college. From that, I started my professional year. I played basketball. That's a little bit about my background now currently, I coach men's, and women's basketball in the WNBA, and in the NBA G league. How did you find out that you have dyslexia? Really not until recent I am 44 years old. Last year, l was walking in Connecticut with my daughter, and my nephew. We were just enjoying the walk, the beautiful summers of Connecticut. They have little pop-up stands, corners where they have like little small libraries, and their books there. I told my daughter, as well as my nephew, go find that book, the second mountain, see if we see anything. They both found books. Of course I looked to show that I'm interested in wanting them to know that I'm partaking in this. I found your book, and it said Overcoming Dyslexia, and immediately had a filling throughout my body and it was an emotion. Obviously took the book, and I knew that I knew about dyslexia. Like dyslexia, I knew about a great deal of it, and I knew I suffered from it or struggled with it, but didn't know, and was never diagnosed for it. That's how this was discovered a year ago. So what did you do? I sat on it for a bit. I explained to my daughter as well as my nephew some of the things I struggle with in my life, and how being able are struggling reading cannot, and will not stop you from doing anything that you want to achieve in your life. I was very adamant about that. I started to try to read your book, didn't get farther than other than a page or two as I struggled with that in any other article or anything I've read. I end up wanting to reach out to our team doctor, head doctor for our team in Connecticut. It took me a while to do that because then I'm open up to someone that knows nothing about this issue that I have in reading. Once I did, he contacted me with you within days. From that experience, my life has changed. In what way? I'm getting emotional because it's a confidence that I have now that I've been able to achieve from the different courses or different tutors that I've had doing this experience of overcoming my dyslexic. How did you overcome it? I'm still overcoming it. My confidence level, and being able to read, and break down a word has been life-changing for me.