Let's begin with the accommodation of extra time and the need for quiet. How have brain imaging studies helped to understand the path Dyslexic readers must take. When typical readers encounter a word, they automatically, automatically integrate all its features. The way the word sounds, that is the phonology, the way the word looks, the autography and the meaning of the word, the semantics. Take a moment and think about how this process might differ in dyslexic readers, and what impact this difference might have on how a dyslexic reads. In contrast, for dyslexic readers is inefficient functioning, particularly of those automatic systems in the left occipital temporal region, the word form area. And as a result dyslexics have to resort to slower, less efficient neural pathways to manually figure out the word and get to its meaning. So here in this figure you can see, we're showing the left side of the brain and you could see on the left is the front of the brain and then there's the back of the brain posterior. And in a typical reader, when asked to read three areas of the brain light up, in the front of the brain and broca's area, you see in green and two areas in the back of the brain, in the posterior region. The parietal temporal region and in the occipital temporal region. And the yellow area is the word form area that does a lot to encourage fluent reading. And on the right you see the dyslexic sprain also the left side and you see an area in the front and broca's area light up a lot. But look at the back, look at the posterior region, you don't see anything light up because it's the inefficient posterior reading systems that don't light up in dyslexia. So you don't see the parietal temporal or the occipital temporal or word form area. Brain imaging studies of children and adults, show different brain activation patterns in dyslexic and typical readers. A pattern referred to as the neural signature of dyslexia, which you can see on the figure. Dyslexic adults who are able to achieve average levels of accuracy have to do so by resorting to these back-up slower, manual secondary neural routes to reading. And here in this figure, you can see those. This shows the neuro biologic evidence for the requirement of the accommodation of extra time. Here you can see the non-impaired brain and the dyslexic brain. What you see here in the dyslexic brain is the word form area, that's the yellow area in the non-impaired brain that fails to form, you don't see it posteriorly on the left side of the dyslexic brain. So that individual has to rely on ancillary systems. You see in the dyslexic brain, in the front of the brain there are two green areas lit up, and again on the right side of the back of the brain posterior, right sided systems. So they're ancillary, so you get partial compensation for accuracy but not for automaticity. In the dyslexic brain reading is not automatic, it's effortful. And even with extra time, that individual will feel rushed. And this is if you want to look at overcoming dyslexia second edition on page 80. Important too is to keep in mind that they are consonant with the clinical observations of Maggie Bruck. Currently a professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Medical School, who noted quote, the patterns of deficits that characterize dyslexic children are the very same patterns that characterize adults with the same childhood histories. What about poor readers who are not dyslexic? Think about if they would benefit from extra time and why or why not? The bright dyslexic readers reliance on context is both absolute and unique, children who are poor readers but not dyslexic. For example, those who have across the board language difficulties are generally not benefited by context. They do not possess the verbal skills, particularly the vocabulary and reasoning skills necessary to help identify unknown words. It is only the dyslexic who possesses the sea of strengths she can apply to the surrounding context to help figure out the mystery word. Since the direct route to meaning is not available to a dyslexic reader, she must apply her intelligence, vocabulary and reasoning to the context around the unknown word in order to get to its meaning. This means, taking a secondary reading pathway that requires extra time. Caution highly able dyslexic readers have the desire to go on to higher education, but they face the barrier of time standardized test, on which they more often than not perform poorly in relation to their knowledge and ability. As I said earlier, they are particularly penalized by timed multiple choice exams, which typically provide both sparse context and time constraints. These tests are not a fair measure, I'm going to repeat that, these tests are not a fair measure of a dyslexic individuals ability, but rather a measure of his disability. Dyslexic individuals who have made major contributions in a range of specialties including writing, medicine, law and finance, came close to being prevented from reaching their goals. Here are some examples, John Irving and the late Stephen J Cannell, another writer of popular TV shows, the Rockford Files and the A Team, both scored poorly on the verbal SAT. The renowned academic physicians Dr Delos Cosgrove, and the late Dr Graham Hammond, scored so low on their medical college admission test M CAT examinations. And if not for unique circumstances in each of their cases, neither would have been admitted to medical school. David Boies and the financier Charles Schwab joined the illustrious circle of highly gifted individuals whose performance on time standardized tests vastly underestimated their abilities, and almost kept each from pursuing and succeeding in his life's ambition. Dr Carol Greider also had an underwhelming score on her GREs, which resulted in her acceptance by just two of the 13 graduate programs to which he applied. And, she carried out her Nobel prize winning research during her graduate years at UC Berkeley. Apparently, the admissions team there wisely saw her qualities in Dr Grider that were missed by the other program administrators who were blinded by her low GRE scores.