Hello. In the last video, I gave you a brief history lesson of Agile and introduced the Agile Manifesto, which states the Agile values and principles. We'll get into the Manifesto, values, and principles in more detail coming up. But before we do that, let's spend some more time comparing Agile and Waterfall. I want to really illustrate the key elements of Agile that distinguish it from Waterfall. Then you'll be able to build on this knowledge when we get into the Manifesto later on. So, as I mentioned in the history lesson, Agile was created in response to the strict linear process of Waterfall. While Waterfall aims for predictability and tries to avoid change, Agile embraces the reality that the world, markets, and users are uncertain and unpredictable. For example, your customer might say they want feature A, but when the final result is delivered, they realize they actually wanted feature B. Agile aims to solve that problem by getting customer feedback more quickly to make sure that the team is building what the customer really wants. Part of working with an Agile mindset is always seeking out ways to work more efficiently. We do this by finding ways to streamline processes without reducing product quality or value. The key to streamlining is to reduce waste. For example, unnecessary documentation is a form of waste. Another form of waste is spending weeks or months working on a feature, only to find out that the customers, who could also be users or stakeholders, don't like the feature after all. You could reduce or eliminate both of these forms of waste by increasing team and stakeholder collaboration. More collaboration means less documentation and earlier feedback about the product. Let's consider some more differences between Waterfall and Agile. Three important aspects of a project are requirements, documentation, and deliverables. Requirements are conditions that must be met or tasks that must be finished to ensure the successful completion of the project. Think of these as the set of criteria that fall within the scope of your project, or a list of specifications that must be met. In a Waterfall project, you'll probably need a product requirements document, which lists the scope and requirements of the project. You need to have several formally approved project plans, and you might have a team of people whose job it is just to write and approve these plans. You might also set up a change control board—a formal and rigorous process to manage any changes to requirements. All this is designed to protect the team from building something that the client or stakeholders don't want and aims to minimize any changes that could lead to scope creep. Formally-approved project plans work well when the desired end product is known and understood. An example of this might be leading a project that has clear requirements and goals based on mandated regulation. But if that's not the case, a Waterfall team risks building out an entire deliverable only to find out later that the customer doesn't like the final result. In Agile, requirements are treated as more dynamic and expected to change as the team receives feedback and new information. There's usually an initial set of requirements or feature ideas when the project kicks off, but that list of requirements and features is continuously growing and changing throughout the project. The team works with stakeholders to prioritize the requirements, always moving the most urgent or valuable items to the top of the list. Then, the team goes down the list, working on the requirements in iterations. By going down the list, the team is able to get feedback on their work quickly and frequently. At the end of each iteration, the team gets feedback and can make necessary adjustments to the requirements before continuing on. Okay, the second aspect is documentation. All projects require documentation, project plans, stakeholder maps, schedules, charters, contracts—the list goes on and on. Waterfall projects use lots of documentation because there are lots of handoffs between phases and handoffs among different teams within the project. Also, because the work is done in bigger chunks, you'll need to leave behind more pieces of documentation at each stage in the project. But in Agile, there's an emphasis on real- time, person-to-person conversations. This doesn't mean that there's zero documentation; it's just in a different form. Instead of big, formal documents with a rigorous change management and approval process, there are shorter documents that have just enough detail to achieve their purpose. These documents are much more focused on what the reader needs to know to get the job done and are written only as needed. Finally, let's explore deliverables. A deliverable is a tangible outcome from a project. In Waterfall projects, you often don't release the deliverable until the very end. The final product release feels like a big event, major announcement, lots of hoopla, and is often super fun and exciting. Agile is just as exciting, but has smaller more frequent releases. So each release has a less formal celebration, but it builds up to be just as exciting. When there's lots of uncertainty in a project, such as in a new emerging industry or market, the steady release of project deliverables enables an Agile team to get feedback and learn as they go. Without regular feedback, the team could end up delivering something that the customer doesn't want. So, now you have a better idea of some key elements of Agile that distinguish it from Waterfall. Three differences between these two project management approaches are the way each one deals with requirements, documentation, and deliverables. Follow me to the next video, where you'll get to know the Agile Manifesto up close and personal.