[MUSIC] When I got a call one morning from the CEO from a big tech company, I was surprised. I was even more surprised, when I understood that the CEO wanted a meeting of one day. And the reason for the meeting was, he wanted to understand what went wrong with IT in his company. We started to work with his company a few weeks before. The executive committee had started an IT project to revamp the front of his company. The IT project has been delayed by Europe, and people were worried about the delay. They wanted to shorten, so they then make sure the project would be completed. We were asked to review it, and what we found was that the project could not be made. It was not a question of one year delay, it was a question of the project simply could not be completed. So it was stopped, and something was started again, which could be completed on time. It was a 50 million euro project. And the CEO said, it is not often we take a 50 million euro's decision. What went wrong? So, over the course of the day, we reviewed with him many hypotheses. And at the end of the day we said, when you make a 50 million euro investment, what does it look for like for you? And the CEO said, well usually, it's a new lab or it's a new technology. And we said, how do you take this decision? He said, if it's a new technology, it takes us six months. We go and visit suppliers. We understand the technology. We visit competitors that are already in the markets. We mature, and after six months, usually we're headed to say go or no go. And then we ask him, for this new IT project of 50 million euros, how long did it take to decide? And he said, five minutes. And then we said, five minutes? Why? And he said, well, it was the first time the CEO and the operation's director agreed. So we said let's go for it. Well no surprise. If you decide for something that you don't understand, usually it will not go well. And that's what happening with IT today. Many projects have an IT component. If you look at all the business investments of a company, as much as 50 to 60% have a IT component. But, it shouldn't get project as an IT component on a merchant [INAUDIBLE] can complete on time. More than 60% are not on time. Some are off by one or two years. Some are never completed. Some people say as much as 20%. So, it's a big issue with IT today, and the CEO has to face these challenges. You'll also have to face new challenges. First one is about a new tech savvy generation. People who have been joining the companies the last ten years have been right. We know what IT is. Start using IT, start using smart phones, start using PCs. By using websites. Some of them know how to code. Some of them know how to use matchups. So they know what ITs about, and they expect a lot from IT in the company. And sometimes, ITs have at home or at school, is better than IT at work. So the second challenge relates to the story I just describe. The executive community now expects much more from IT, because at least IT is embedded into. So the CEO has to deal with executive, in a very business-like manner. And the last challenge is coming from outside. Technology is progressing very fast. New companies in IT are emerging, and the promise of IT is also much better than it used to be. So many companies are coming to see business executive CEOs to say, we can do your IT faster, we can do your IT cheaper, we can put it into the cloud. So the Ceo has to manage also, a very complex and very. If he wants to succeed, he needs to treat well his employees, his business counterparts, and of course his staff. These are the big challenges of a CEO today.